A stadium consists of a playing field and 4 stands. The stands can be in
a preliminary building stage or equipped with seating or standing areas and,
in addition can also have roofs.
Depending on the stadiums design, the shell of the stands can be of
different sizes, so the maximum capacity of each stadium can vary.
There are four admission price categories. Covered or Non-Covered standing areas,
as well as Covered or Non-Covered seating areas. The better the spaces and
comfort offered, the more willing the fans are to come to the teams games and
to more money for the entrance.
The exact entry price for the spaces in the four categories is calculated
using a specific key from the base ticket price. The base ticket price
is thereby determined directly by the team manager. The basic ticket
price will be logically set so that game revenue is the maximum possible.
Number of Spectators
In calculating the number of spectators at a match, several factors
with different weighting are involved:
Fan base: Each team has a specific fan base. The fans come
to the stadium regardless of the weather, admission and beer
prices or the teams current position in the table. The fan base
changes relativley slowly and can be blind to big successes and failures.
Admission Price: The lower the admission prices the more
the spectators that flock to the stadium. On the other hand
many potential fans will have a threshold in reference to
the admission price, meaning many of them will choose to
stay at home rather than come to the stadium. The determination
of the Admission prices is an important task of the Team Manager
and should no be neglected.
Comfort: Many spectator are only prepared to go watch a game at
the stadium if their requirements for comfort will be provided.
The true fans are completely happy to stand in the uncovered
standing section, while many spectators need a covered seat
in the seated section to be happy.
Current Table Position: The higher the teams position in the league,
the more spectator that come to the team's games. On the other hand,
if a team is battling against relegation they will also have problems
in filling their stadium. This affects both home and away games.
Competition: The type of competition can also vary
the number of spectators at a game. In the most exciting phases
of a competition, such as the semi final of the National cup, an
above average number of spectators in the stadium.
International competition can also attract fans who would
usually rarely go to the stadium.
Many spectator indulge themselves in snacks like a sausage or a beer,
before during or after the game. The income from catering is not as
high as the income received from match tickets, but still puts a
bit more money in the till.
The total cost of a stadium are the stake-cost and maintenance costs.
The stake costs are incurred only when a match occurs, while maintenance
costs are incurred daily regardless of a game being played at the stadium.
The income calculation is a ‘what if’ statement.
The estimated income can be followed in detail, and what the club will
achieve financially when the base admission price is of a certain value
and when the stadium capacity is 60%, 80% or 100% full.
Spectator Times and Income Calculation
The attendance figures and therefore the revenues are calculated 2.5 hours before the game i.e.
16:30 for the 19:00 game and
18:00 for the 20:30 game
The already determined admission prices are used to work out
income at both time points of 16:30 and 18:00.
Stadium expansion I: Stand Enhancement
The enhancement of the stands refers to the possibility of building
standing or seating areas within the stadiums undeveloped shell.
It is possible to expand the stadium up to the maximum given limits.
The stands are divided into Blocks. In each of these Blocks 250 seats
or standing spaces can be arranged by granting a works contract.
Building of the seating or standing area takes several days, with
the exact time frame determined in the granted work contract.
For providing the construction , the owner of the stadium must
pay the contractor a certain amount of money, which is decided
when the works contract is granted. The money is immediately
debited from the account upon the issue of the contract.
Building work occurring during construction will not affect games in any way.
When the construction work is completed, the new seats or standing spaces
will be available to fans in the next home game.
Stadium Expansion II: Roofing
The standing and seating area of every stadium can be completely
covered by roofing, therefore the North, East, South and West
stands are all covered. All roofs for each stand can be individually built.
Stands can offer various spaces for many fans, and through having a
roof are protected from rain, snow etc. In contrast to the expansion
of the standing and seating areas in blocks, the building of a
roof extension can only be done per stand.
Building the roof takes several days, with the exact time frame determined
in the granted work contract. For providing the construction,
the owner of the stadium must pay the contractor a certain amount of money,
which is decided when the works contract is granted. The money is immediately
debited from the account upon the issue of the contract.
As in the construction of the stands, the building of the roof
will not affect games in any way.
Buliding a New Stadium
The stadium can be expanded up to its maximum capacity. An extension over the
capacity limit is not possible due to structural reasons.
If a fully developed stadium is constantly sold out, the Team Manager
should think about constructing a new stadium in order to provide more
places for spectators which will therefore also bring in a higher
income at home games.
The construction of a stadium is a costly affair, as the money invested
in the construction can usually only flow back into the team fund after
several seasons. Due to this the Team has to be more successful
before the construction of a new stadium.
For the new stadium, a total of 5 different designs are available to
choose from. These stadiums differ in their maximum capacity and
therefore so do the corresponding stadium costs. The stadium consists
of the building shell attached to which are the standing and seating
areas as well as the roofing. When granting a construction contract,
the degree of expansion of the standing area, seats and the roof can
be freely determined. The building shell however must be completely
built and paid for.
The construction of the new stadium takes 30 days. So long as the new
stadium is not complete, the team will continue to play in their old stadium.
The building work during the construction does not interfere with games.
After the completion of the new stadium, the old stadium is demolished.
There is no refund on the old stadiums construction costs.
The costs for the building contract of the new stadium construction
will be immediatley charged to the respective team upon the contract
confirmation. Understandably a building contract can only be awarded
if the team has enough money for the new stadium.